Saturday, August 31, 2019
Politics in Education Can education exist without politics? The answer is simply put no. While many would love to see the political scene leave education, it is inherent that the two remain together. The key is how they work together in the best interest of the students. Public schools are responsible for two precious entities- children and tax dollars (Farmer, 2012). This is one of the reasons that Ã¢â¬Å"today, education is perhaps the most important function of state and local governmentsÃ¢â¬ (Brown v. Board of education, 1954).While we are progressively seeing federal mandates in education more now than ever, it is mainly the state and local levels where politics are inseparable (Farmer, 2012). Since education is highly imperative to the future of our country, it is and will always be subject to political scrutiny. From the beginning, a well educated American was deemed necessary to protect independence and the general welfare of the citizens (League of Women Voters, 2011). It has been stated this type of citizen will Ã¢â¬Å"rule themselves through elected officialsÃ¢â¬ (Brademas).Education, especially higher education, at one point was considered a luxury; however, in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s world a Ã¢â¬Å"high-qualityÃ¢â¬ education often including the collegiate level is believed to be both a Ã¢â¬Å"universal right and a necessity for individual welfareÃ¢â¬ (Farmer, 2012). For this reason education will remain important topic of political debates between politicians as well as local townspeople. Politics in education goes dates as far back as the Land Ordinance of 1785 and the Northwest Ordinance of 1787.Federal support was given at this time and later in 1841 with the Land Grand Act in the form of land designated for a system of public education to be established. During this time the federal government began to grant money. This money was often used to clean up from war expenses; however, some funds were used for education even though congress did no t stipulate that such funds could be used for education (League of Women Voters, Oct. 2011). It is well aware this funding continues today although the state and local government share the majority of the responsibility.In 1791, the 10th Amendment guaranteed rights to all citizens by stating Ã¢â¬Å"the powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people. Ã¢â¬ This amendment entrusted authority over education to the states by having state constitutions assign specific responsibility and legal authority for public education (Usdan, M. , McCloud, B. , Podmostko, M. , and Cuban, L. , 2001). Today, state and local revenue fund approximately 87% of the money for elementary and secondary education.It is estimated that only 10% comes from federal funding (The Federal Role in Education). In 1867, the original Department of Education was established to collect data on schools and teachi ng in order to help create an effective school system (League of Women Voters, 2011). One major turning point for federal education was the GI bill of 1944. The government allotted for nearly eight million World War II veterans to have education assistance to attend college. Until this point, the federal government basically only did research and created policies for an effective system.Financing of education was not highly supported through the department. Then in 1958, Congress passed the National Defense Education Act (NDEA) in response to RussiaÃ¢â¬â¢s Sputnik. This created money available to students willing to study in science, mathematics, and foreign languages (Dow, 1991). In 1965, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act was created which included Title 1 funding to the disadvantaged. In 1983, A Nation at Risk was released calling for a refocus on an education reform in order to compete with other countries as it appeared that America was falling behind (Farmer, 2012).E ven though the Department of Education has grown drastically, their mission still remains Ã¢â¬Å"to promote student achievement and preparation for global competitiveness by fostering education excellence and ensuring equal accessÃ¢â¬ (Department of Education, 2012). Today, every educator is familiar with most of the current federal mandates including- No Child Left Behind (reauthorization of ESEA), Race to the Top, and common core standards. While most of the funding, administrating, and accountability falls on the state and local governments, these are all federal policies which are often the main topics in a political education debate.One must ask why the federal government has most of the control over our educational system if it is primarily funded by state and local governments. Is it possible that different areas with different demographics might need a different policy than that mandate from federal level. Being successful is teaching the students in the best possible env ironment and demonstrating success through achievement. What works in one small town may not work in the next small or large town. Why, then, does the federal government upport equality by mandating yet not funding criteria. One thing does remain true- all of these do have a common census-equality in education for each student. The debate question that rises: Ã¢â¬Å"is equality for everyone possible? Ã¢â¬ Under President George W. Bush, No Child Left Behind was designed to Ã¢â¬Å"close achievement gaps, particularly for minority childrenÃ¢â¬ (League of Women, 2011). It was set that by year 2014, 95% of students would be meeting state standards in reading and math.Many educators, politicians, and citizens argued that this was an unrealistic goal which would in return be punishing or threatening the low-performing schools. Under this law, parents could be given a voucher to send their child to a different higher performing school. Although every educator had to obtain Ã¢â¬Å"hig hly qualifiedÃ¢â¬ status, teachers working at the schools deemed needing improvement often had negative feelings toward their job and thus the students suffered (League of Women Voters, 2011). Race to the Top was signed into law by the current President Barack Obama in 2009.This federal mandate came with promises of funding, and as everyone knows Ã¢â¬Å"money speaks volumes. Ã¢â¬ This approach would award funds to states who would meet the necessary requirements. Two of these requirements are (1) improve evaluations of teachers thus improving effectiveness based on students achievement (2) raising the limit of charter schools (League of Women Voters, 2011). Race to the Top has several supporters because it comes with necessary funding to move our current classrooms into the 21st century; however, it also comes with unrealistic research.Several argue that standardized testing is not a fair way to evaluate teacher performance. The most current federal request is the use of commo n vs. state standards The idea here is that not only will each child receive an equal education within their state, but they now will receive the same equal education within their country and hopefully one day within the nation. The use of common core standards allows children to master through higher order thinking within broad life skills instead of basic memorization of state specific standards.It opens up a new way of thinking for children and teachers. It also does create a more equal playing field as far as what children learn within their elementary and secondary education career. Most political debates in education often revolve around these federal policies, but even more often than that the main debate is: funding. Who is going to pay for education? The answer brings up the other highly political debate- us, the taxpayers. It is true that all three levels of government- federal, state, and local- contribute to education.States typically provide a little less than half, loc al governments about 44%, and the federal government only funds 10% . The interesting fact is that within the federal governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s10% it includes Title 1, NCLB, RttT, Special Education, child nutrition, and Head Start (Federal Education Budget, 2012). Also, overall the U. S. Department of Education accounts for less than 3% of the total federal budget (Federal Education Budget, 2012). As a nation, we must ask ourselves is the value of education really worth only 3% of the entire federal budget? Excellence is given symbolic prominence, but not sustained financial supportÃ¢â¬ (Usdan, et al, 2001). The political debate is that most politicians will not support efforts to increase funding for education because it will raise taxes- something very few citizens support. However, if the federal government gives only 10%, the state of Tennessee is left with majority of the responsibility to fund education in order for it to succeed. States rely mainly on income and sales tax to fun d elementary and secondary education. It is the legislature who determines the level and distribution of the funding.Tennessee uses the Basic Education Program (BEP) in order to determine the cost specifications for each component in our system. In Tennessee, the share is roughly 70% which is average when compared with our country (Tennessee Basic Education Program, 2011). In some states it is as high as 86% and as low as 31%. The variation exists because some states rely heavily on local property taxes instead of state funding (Federal Education Budget, 2012). The last and probably one of the most political entities is that of the local school board. The funding for local schools is usually provided by property taxes.Thus the wealthier areas have the ability to collect more taxes which allows for them to keep tax rates lower. Unfortunately, the poorer communities may have higher tax rates but still not reach the needed funding for the local school district. Therefore often times ch ildren with the highest needs are often sent to the schools with less resources and less qualified teachers. This is why education can never be created equal for every child. Another political argument is that in present times education leadership in America is not withheld to high enough standards.Instead some argue that we have fifty Ã¢â¬Å"education governorsÃ¢â¬ (Usdan, et al, 2001) or some even go as far as to say, Ã¢â¬Å"Governors and presidents are no better suited to run schools than they are to run construction sitesÃ¢â¬ (Thomas, 2012). Truthfully, yes many governors could be doing a better job in education, but most are willing to fight for it. Most support the importance as honestly we must all agree that Ã¢â¬Å"what, after all, could be more important than a proper education for the stateÃ¢â¬â¢s most precious asset, its children? Ã¢â¬ (Usdan, et al, 2001). This argument holds very true at the local level.It is correct to say that from the ladder of the preside nt to the governor to the superintendents of education to school board chairs and members: often some of these educational leaders have little to no background or expertise in education. From the federal to the state level, most appointed leaders in education branches bring the required knowledge. However, the local school board is composed of a diverse group of members with different backgrounds and knowledge. While they all bring unique characteristics and a broad base of knowledge, it is often the case that they do not bring an educational background.Education needs a reform in which it is driven by educators who have lived within the field. These are the people who need to be in charge of forming and implementing our countryÃ¢â¬â¢s educational policy. Educational leadership is important at all levels including the local school board. For over 200 years, politics has played a part in our educational system. From the federal government all the way down to the local politics talk ed about in gas stations or at a high school football game. Politics and education will always be entwined together. Both are vital for the future of our nation as our future is in our children.As the vision for Tennessee states, Ã¢â¬Å"it is to prepare all Tennessee children for successful post-secondary work, education, and citizenship. Ã¢â¬ The stateÃ¢â¬â¢s master plan is to Ã¢â¬Å"ensure equal access to the education constitutionally guaranteed to all Tennessee childrenÃ¢â¬ (Master Plan). Without politics, schools will not exist. Without schools, knowledge to become a successful, active citizen will not exist. Thus both politics and education will always hold a vital role. Resources: Brown v. Board of Education. (1954) Civil Rights Organization. Retrieved October 2012, from http://www. civilrights. rg/education/brown/ Department of Education. (2012) Mission Statement Retrieved October 2012 from http://www2. ed. gov/about/overview/mission/mission. html Dow, P. B. (1991). Schoolhouse politics: Lessons from the Sputnik era. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Farmer, T. (2012, January 12). Politics of Local Education. Retrieved from the Connexions Web site: http://cnx. org/content/m14432/1. 10/ Federal Education Budget Project. (September 13, 2012). Retrieved October 2012 from http://febp. newamerica. net/background-analysis/school-finance Federal Role in Education. (2012). U. S. Department of Education.Retrieved October 2012 from http://www2. ed. gov/about/overview/fed/role. html League of Women Voters of the United States. (October 2011). The Role of the Federal Government in Public Education Part Two. Washington D. C: Author. League of Women Voters of the United States. (2011). The History of Federal Government in Public Education: Where have we been and how did we get here? Washington D. C: Author. Master Plan (2008). Master Plan FY 2008-2012. State Board of Education. Retrieved October 2012, from http://www. state. tn. us/sbe/masterplan. htm Tennessee Basic Education Program. (October 2011).State Board of Education. Retrieved October 2012 from http://www. state. tn. us/sbe/BEP%20Booklet%20FY12. pdf Thomas, P. L. , (2012). Politics and Education DonÃ¢â¬â¢t Mix. The Atlantic. Retrieved October 2012 from http://www. theatlantic. com/national/print/2012/04/politics-and-education-dont-mix/256303/ Usdan, M. , McCloud, B. , Podmostko, M. , and Cuban, L. (2001). Leadership for Student Learning. School Leadership for the 21st Century Initiative A Report of the Task Force on State Leadership. Washington, D. C. Retrieved October 2012 from http://www. iel. org/programs/21st/reports/staterole. pdf
Friday, August 30, 2019
1. Do you think the primary cause of the failure of the two companies that led to the bailout was a management failure, a worker failure, a shareholder or customer failure, some other reason, or a combination of the above? Why is that the case? General Motors was founded by William Ã¢â¬Å"BillyÃ¢â¬ Durant on September 16, 1908 and has several brands under names such as Chevrolet, Cadillac, and Buick. Chrysler was founded by Walter Chrysler in 1925 and it also has many brands such as Jeep, Dodge, Ram, and Fiat. These are two of the biggest American carmakers in the United States and their demise was hard to comprehend. I think there are many reasons that collectively led to the failure of both GM and Chrysler. One of the causes for the demise of both companies was management failure. Management is supposed to lead by making the right choices for themselves and their customers. Management failed to set up financial policies that would benefit their companies in the long run. The financial meltdown of Wall Street led to a national crisis, which made GM and Chrysler unable to borrow money to keep them afloat. The financial meltdown trickled down to consumers who were not able to get loans either to purchase or lease cars. The financial meltdown and car sales having been at their lowest point in a decade is the reason that GM and Chrysler had to file for bankruptcy. GM and ChryslerÃ¢â¬â¢s management also failed to anticipate the rise of energy prices. Gas prices skyrocketed to almost four dollars a gallon and with the fragile state of the economy, it made people very conservative about their driving. The rise of gas prices was almost like a death sentence to Chrysler and GM. They have relied on the sales of sport utility vehicles or SUVs as their main source of income. The sport utility vehicles carry an already high price tag and when you add the gas prices you get vehicles that nobody wants to purchase. People wanted to get rid of their SUVs because they just cost too much money to operate. Customers switched to smaller more fuel-efficient vehicles because it became more of a necessity than a choice. Unfortunately GM and Chrysler were not ready to meet the new demand for fuel-efficient vehicles. The cars that GM and Chrysler had on the market were not as fuel efficient as their foreign counterparts, which made the financial stability for the American carmakers uncertain at best. GM and ChryslerÃ¢â¬â¢s management failed to acknowledge competition and innovation. Carmakers like Toyota have for many years tried to stay innovative and ahead of the competition by taking risks and investing in research and development. Toyota developed one of the best selling cars in American history called the Ã¢â¬Å"PriusÃ¢â¬ , which is a very fuel-efficient car. On the other hand GM and Chrysler are just starting to develop electric and hybrid cars. Unfortunately foreign carmakers have the market cornered because neither GM nor Chrysler succeeded in forecasting the needs and wants of the American People. GM and Chrysler still have a bad reputation for the quality of their cars. Nowadays when people think of reliable, fuel-efficient and quality cars most people think of foreign carmakers. GM and Chrysler are trying to change the perception of the quality of their cars, but when a company takes this long to try to change it is very hard to win back some of their customers. I would personally hesitate to buy a car from either company because of what friends and family have said about the problems they have encountered with their cars. I believe it is the management of both companiesÃ¢â¬â¢ fault that led to their financial demise. Like any other company in the world, it is the people at the top who have the control, knowledge, and resources to make the tough choices and right decisions. I just do not see how it could be the fault of workers who just follow orders and have no say about the management of the company. It cannot be the fault of the customers because most people would not buy a product of poor quality or from a bankrupt company. One of the largest shareholders for GM at the time was Jerry York. He begged the board of directors to take drastic measures to save the company and they decided to ignore him. Now, they are doing some of the things Jerry York suggested because the federal government is forcing them. According to my research, most people feel that it was the poor management that led the American carmakers to bankruptcy and the need for the federal government to bail them out. Citations Seven reasons GM is headed to bankruptcy http://www. usatoday. com/money/autos/2009-05-31-gm-mistakes-bankruptcy_N. htm After 101 years, why GM failed http://www. bspcn. com/2009/06/01/after-101-years-why-gm-failed/ GM in CrisisÃ¢â¬â5 Reasons Why America's Largest Car Company Teeters on the Edge http://www. popularmechanics. com/cars/news/industry/4292379
Thursday, August 29, 2019
Analyze the risk of Merger and Acquisition on enterprise - Dissertation Example The paper describes why the organizations purse mergers and acquisitions. There are different reasons for this including growth strategies and when seeking to enter into a new market which has been identified as the main reason behind acquisitions. In the commercial sector, larger corporations are considered to be better because such corporations are considered to have larger pool of resources to enhance their operations and to reach out to a great number of customers. In light of this, mergers and acquisitions have become the order of the day in the corporate world. Some acquisitions and mergers are so successful that it is possible to remember when the companies involved were separate and distinct entities. However, other mergers fail to accomplish their intended purposes and companies engaged either runs bankrupt, executives are sacked or they go into a corporate separation. Mergers and acquisitions get together varying people, processes, and technologies with the aim of creating a large unified organization. The organization generally seeks to gain from the synergies of the acquisition and merger by consolidating, integrating and rationalizing the people, technologies and procedures of the two organizations. Not all companies have the ability to provide the desired technology to compete effectively with other players in the market and therefore they choose to team up with other enterprises that have the desire technology or with which they can combine resources to get the needed technology. Mergers and acquisitions may also be adopted by enterprises as an attempt to mitigate their financial risks and share costs involved in research and development of a new product (Elmuti and Kathawala, 2001, p. 205). They assert that financial resources required to purse a new product may be too high for one company and therefore they may result to merger. According to Elmuti and Kathawala (2001, p. 206), when airplane manufacturers realized that construction of a large j et plane involved high cost; they formed an alliance between Boeing, Aerospatiale of France, British Aerospace, Deutsche Aerospace of Germany and Construcciones Aeronauticas of Spain. This alliance was geared towards spreading the financial risks involved in the venture among many players. The other reason for mergers and acquisitions is to help enterprises achieve competitive advantage. Elmuti and Kathawala (2001, p. 206) describe that alliances are attractive to small organizations as they provide the required tools required to give them a competitive edge. The risks and problems involved in merger and acquisition range from financial risks, relational risks, incompatible cultures, lack of trust, inadequate coordination between the management teams and differences in
Wednesday, August 28, 2019
Primary lung cancer - Essay Example It is vastly important to distinguish between SCLC and NSCLC through their histology as the treatment differs ("Types of," 2009). Although, SCLC grows and spreads quickly to other areas of the lung, it is also more responsive to treatment. SCLC accounts for 20 % of all lung cancers ("Types of," 2009). Exposure to radon, asbestos and uranium increases the risk of SCLC along with cigarette smoke. Small cell lung cancer is divided into two stages; namely, limited and extensive. Limited stage accounts for the presence of cancer in lymph nodes and in between the tissues present in one lung. While in the latter stage, cancer has spread to other organs of the body. The symptoms increase as the cancer advances: from coughing to swelling of hands and face, fatigue and even paralysis. Diagnosis is done through CT scan, chest x-ray, sputum cytology, bronchoscopy, etc. Radiation therapy and chemotherapy play a major role in combating SCLC whereas; surgery plays little or no role. This is because in about 70% of the patients, the tumor has already spread to other organs ("Small-Cell," 2009). Moreover, the survival time is about two years in the extensive stage. Though, there are cases where early diagnosis of SCLC has benefitted from surgical removal of the tumor. Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has many different types based on their histology; which makes up about 75% of all lung cancers.
Tuesday, August 27, 2019
Interest rates & stocks - Essay Example By using these values the current price of XYZ stock has been calculated and it is equal to $12.85. Po is the actual share price and P is the calculated stock price and when these two prices are compared, there is a huge difference between the two prices as the value of Po is equal to $76.28 and value of P is $12.85. There can be several reasons for the difference between the actual price of XYZ stock and the calculated price. One major reason could be the difference between the demand and supply of stock as in reality the demand of XYZ stock would be very high which might have increased the actual price of the stock and for this reason the stock has been overvalued. Also the other reason might be that people might expect the company to perform better in future and this is the reason why they would like to buy the stock of XYZ and this would have increased the price of the stock as well. As the market risk premium has increased from 7.5% to 10%, so this would change the return of XYZ stock as well. The new return can be found using CAPM equation and the new required return with the changed market risk premium would be 18.525%. By using the value of new required return of XYZ stock in Constant Growth Model the value of XYZÃ¢â¬â¢s share price has been calculated. The new price is $7.75. The new price is lower than the price calculated previously because the market risk has increased and investors would like to have more return on the stock. So in order to get more return either the return or dividend should increase or the price of the stock should decrease, since dividend is constant therefore the price of the stock has decreased. The share price of XYZ Company calculated using the P/E method is different than the share price calculated using constant growth model and the reason behind this difference in estimated share price is that these methods are used to estimate the share price and at times one method would give
Monday, August 26, 2019
An investigation into the services provided by the National Insurance Board in the Bahamas - Coursework Example ............ 6 The Urgent Need for Reforms Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦... 7 The NIB Restructure Explained Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦. 11 The National Insurance Fund is not in a Ã¢â¬Å"CrisisÃ¢â¬ Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦...13 Personal Analysis of the NIB Services Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦...14 Conclusion and Recommendation: The Need for Privatization Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..15 Works Cited Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.17 Appendix Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã ¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦..19 Introduction Started in 1972, the National Insurance Board (NIB) of the Commonwealth of the Bahamas is an organization in charge of the management of the Bahamian social security system. It was established based on a Parliament Act - the National Insurance Act which was signed into law by the Minister of Labor and Welfare, Clifford Darling, on December 12, 1972. The National Insurance Act is an act to institute a national insurance system for the provision of income replacement against contingencies, such as in sickness, maternity, retirement, invalidity, death, work injury or involuntary income loss (Ã¢â¬Å"Chapter 350: National InsuranceÃ¢â¬ ). ... Moreover, the Commission aimed to evaluate the viability of unemployment benefits (Ã¢â¬Å"Better Social Security for BahamiansÃ¢â¬ ). In 2009, following the 8th Actuarial Review of the National Insurance Fund, recommendations were made by the Social Security Reform Commission to guarantee the long-term sustainability of the NIB Funds and to ensure the protection of the aging and insured population by increasing revenues and reducing operational costs (Ward). This paper aims to investigate the services rendered by the National Insurance Board to the Bahamian people; to explain the NIB losses; and to assess the need for increased contributions, reduced benefits, improved compliance and reduced administrative costs for securing long-term sustainability of the National Insurance Fund. This author will give personal analysis of the NIB services and will give recommendations for the solution of its present dilemma. The National Insurance Board In 1972, the NIB was established in accordan ce with the 1972 National Insurance Act, aimed at providing social security coverage to the insured Bahamian members and their dependents through Benefit Payments in such cases as sickness, funeral, invalidity, maternity, retirement, unemployment, and the death of the family's bread-winner survivorship, work injury comprising disablement, death and medical care. Moreover, the NIB offers a minimum level of social security coverage for persons unqualified for such benefits as of right; and provides efficient administration of the National Insurance Programme and Fund compliant with the judiciary rules of the National Insurance Act; and supports the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s socio-economic growth and development (Ã¢â¬Å"The National Insurance BoardÃ¢â¬ ). Benefits and Assistance The National Insurance Board provides
Sunday, August 25, 2019
The Health of Women in Japan - Research Paper Example Incidence and prevalence of sexually transmitted infections also identifies higher risks and worse symptoms in women than in men (MedlinePlus 1). Consequently, human health is significant and should be investigated for populations and subopulations and results compared for decisions and initiatives that can help in improving womenÃ¢â¬â¢s health. This paper discusses the health of women in Japan and argues that the sub population enjoys good health standard. Sexuality is one of the major factors to health, and womenÃ¢â¬â¢s health in particular. The fact that women are more susceptible to sexually transmitted diseases than men are, based on reports by MedlinePlus (1), therefore indicates significance of sexual behavior on womenÃ¢â¬â¢s health. in japan, women have shunned down the use of contraceptives and this has direct implications on their health. The women prefer other birth control alternatives and condom use is the most significant, accounting for up to 80 percent of birth control initiatives while only 1.3 of the countryÃ¢â¬â¢s women uses pills. This is far less that pill usage in the United States in which more that 15 percent of women uses pills. Use of pills however substitute condom usage and its implication of unprotected sex means exposure to sexually transmitted diseases. Consequently, fewer of Japanese women are exposed to sexually transmitted diseases than women from other regions are and this suggest better womenÃ¢ â¬â¢s health in Japan. Effects of some sexually ransmitted diseases such as HIV are examples and are therefore minimized in Japanese women though use of condoms instead of pills as contraceptives. Decreasing trends in teenage pregnancies in the country as well as lower abortion rates in Japan also suggest increasing effective uses of the predominant birth control mechanisms, use of condom being predominant, and this indicate healthy sexual behavior towards better
Saturday, August 24, 2019
Uniforms at Schools as a Way to Minimize Violence - Essay Example The essay "Uniforms at Schools as a Way to Minimize Violence" discusses the issue whether we should go for one uniform for the entire student population. Every society or group likewise has adopted some rules and regulations that classify and identify its members. It might be a certain haircut, or color of the hair, clothing or emblem- even a password that changes every week. The adoption of a common uniform for every child going to school not only helps identify and classify that child as a member of that particular school but also gives a sense of belonging and identity to the child that once in school, he or she must conform to their rules and regulations. Another very good purpose for a school uniform is that it makes all students easily identifiable and can help in increasing student safety while reducing cases of violence and quarrels in the school premises. Students are also members of the boy scouts or girl guides, which use a certain uniform and regalia that not only makes t hem look smart and elegant but identifies them as members of that particular fraternity. They are taught to be more confident and self-sufficient, get survival skills as well as the ability to help others in distress- especially in cases of emergency. They can likely help you survive in the desert and know first aid and related skills. No one grudges them or complains about their uniform- in fact, it is appreciated because it helps identify them as helping and caring members of humanity wherever they go.
Paternity civil case and calculation - Essay Example These include the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigations (FBI) Combined DNA Index System (CODIS) markers used in DNA evidence. Butler (2006) indicates that markers were first described as an effective tool to ascertain human identity in the early 1990Ã¢â¬â¢s. Since then they have become important tools which have been employed in order to resolve numerous paternity testing cases. Identigene (n.d.) indicates that genetists developed this set of markers to ensure a level of consistency in identifying individuals and named them according to their chromosomal location. Each of the marker location shows two alleles (variation values) represented by the numbers in the table below. In this case Identigene (n.d.) indicates that the alleles are measures of short tandem reports (STR). One of the STR alleles is from the mother and one from the father. If at least one of the markers for each STR locus matches then there is assumed to be a high probability of a paternity relationship. On the oth er hand if at least one of the markers for each STR locus does not agree with the alleged fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s then this is an indication that there is no paternity relationship. A paternity index that is greater than 100 yields a CPI of 99.0000%; one that equates to 200, yields a CPI of 99.5%; and one that equates to 1000 yields a CPI of 99.9900%. Identigene (n.d.) indicates that immigration cases require a CPI value of 200 or better. The International Society of Forensic Genetics (ISFG) has a number of recommendations on biostatistics in paternity testing. These include: the importance of a statement of a hypothesis; information on how the calculations are done, considerations for the possibility of mutations whenever a genetic inconsistency is observed; guidance relating to the possibility of a single allele in a tested subject; as well as the details that should be presented in test reports. According to Gjertson et al (2007) the International
Friday, August 23, 2019
Personal Training - Research Paper Example People lack time to prepare meals and therefore consume junk food. The food is associated with health problems when consumed over time. Any individual who aims to correct the bad behavior has to train his or her mind to accept the changes in meals and have the determination (Baechle, 2004). Based on personal understanding a personal trainer is helpful in the achievement of future goals. The initial step in the training program is the creation of a future that one intends to achieve. It involves setting future goals by the trainee, and the trainer can understand what the trainee wants to achieve. The key issue in goal setting is having the right kind of goals Ã¢â¬Å"fitness encompasses more than achieving the perfect bodyÃ¢â¬ (McClaran, 2003). It is about having a body that is fit and healthy. Trainers play an important role in assisting trainees to set good goals such as being healthy rather than being thin (Earle et al, 2004) Research indicates that the second step is the formulation of a compelling future; it is considered as a requirement towards winning the Ã¢â¬Å"inner gameÃ¢â¬ in the training. The creation of a compelling future includes the visualization of the goals desired and the beneficial outcomes of the training. The images obtained help the trainee to get inspired and moved towards the realization of the dreams. Visualization of the desired goals also helps the trainee develop an inner source of motivation. The diet of the trainee is also another issue considered by the trainer (McClaran, 2003). On personal understanding the trainer helps the student to understand that there is a difference between food and their body. The purpose of the food needs to be understood by the trainee and also how they are programmed towards food consumption. For example, some people live to eat instead of eating to live therefore they take food so as to enjoy themselves. From the sources, upon identifying
Thursday, August 22, 2019
Censorship of Electronic Communication Systems Essay Communication system of society is changing rapidly with the time. In ancient ages people use to communicate with shouting. If people are much more apart from one another the letter writing was the only means of communication just before 500 years. Due to rapid development of science, now a days a message can be passed to millions of people who all are scattered in whole world by a simple electronic communication system. Due to electronic communication devices true as well as false message can be spread to the people with in short time, this may cause negative impact on society and country. For shake of betterment sometime it is necessary to censor some of the news, ideas, books etc in the electronic communication. Electronic Communication. Every day, in our work and in our leisure time, we come in contact with and use a variety of modern communication systems and communication media, the most common being the telephone, radio, television, and the Internet. Through these media we are able to communicate (nearly) instantaneously with people on different continents, transact our daily business, and receive information about various developments and events of note that occur all around the world. Electronic mail and facsimile transmission have made it possible to rapidly communicate written messages across great distances. Facebook, twiter, Hi5, blogs, online radio, online newspaper etc are the easiest way to spread a news or rumor. Censorship. Censorship the control of the information and ideas circulated within a society has been a hallmark of dictatorships throughout history. In the 20th Century, censorship was achieved through the examination of books, plays, films, television and radio programs, news reports, and other forms of communication for the purpose of altering or suppressing ideas found to be objectionable or offensive. The rationales for censorship have varied, with some censors targeting material deemed to be indecent or obscene; heretical or blasphemous; or seditious or treasonous. Thus, ideas have been suppressed under the guise of protecting three basic social institutions: the family, the church, and the state. Censorship is the suppression of speech or other public communication which may be considered objectionable, harmful, sensitive, or inconvenient as determined by a government, media outlet, or other controlling body. It can be done by governments and private organizations or by individuals who engage in self-censorship. It occurs in a variety of different contexts including speech, books, music, films, and other arts, the press, radio, television, and the Internet for a variety of reasons including national security, to control obscenity, child pornography, and hate speech, to protect children, to promote or restrict political or religious views, and to prevent slander and libel. It may or may not be legal. Many countries provide strong protections against censorship by law, but none of these protections are absolute and it is frequently necessary to balance conflicting rights in order to determine what can and cannot be censored. Example of Censorship: 1. Mobile network coverage was not allowed in Chittagong hill districts for insurgency problem. Insurgents and miscreants used to communicate with each other and operate against general people. 2. Censorship is also imposed on social media like facebook, tweeter, YouTube in many Muslim country like Syria, Pakistan , Bangladesh, Indonesia etc for protesting against disrespect to their beloved prophet. 3. People below 18 years are not allowed to watch or visit some of the adult site or web/books. 4. Recently in our country its one of the hot topic .Some blogger insulted our beloved prophet through the blog. To stop violation among people Bangldesh government stop some of the blogs. Benefits of Censorship It is evident that the hotly debated issue concerning media censorship is hardly started, especially in todayÃ¢â¬â¢s ever changing media. With the ever changing medial rules and regulations, media authorities are always on their toes with regards to evaluating what is fit for publication or broadcast. This article aims at highlighting both the pros and cons of censorship. 1. National Issue: a. In present days a country involve in developing nuclear weapon impasses ban on telecasting or broadcasting any news regarding nuclear weapon subject. b. A scandal or spreading obnoxious picture of very high official of the country needs a immediate censorship on electronic midea. 2. Censorship on news: During martial law special censorship is done in print and electronic media. 3. Protects young children. The most obvious benefit of censorship includes radical regulations aimed at protecting children from obscene content. Moreover, media censorship help prevent hate speech and other organizations that spread hate ideologies. By filtering media content, parents are sure that their children are safe from obscene content. 4. Upholds social value Internet censorship, on the other hand suppresses the sharing of information to such an extent that some websites are not accessible. In fact, some countries from different parts of the world have installed internet/media censorship to help keep the values and tradition restored/ or alive. With that said, media censorship plays an essential role in safeguarding moral and social value in the society. 5. Protects against sexism and racism We are all familiar with the saying that our children are future leaders. Many folks have devoted their time to molding their childrenÃ¢â¬â¢s Ã¢â¬ËÃ¢â¬â¢futureÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬â¢. Since children learn from their peers and what they see on television, media censorship aims to protect them against sexism, racism and segregation. That way, children are raised well and with admirable social values.
Wednesday, August 21, 2019
Carboxymethyl Cellulose On Blends Of Polyvinyl Alcohol Environmental Sciences Essay ABSTRACT Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) blends were prepared and found that Poly(vinyl alcohol) Poly(ethylene oxide) are inherently immiscible and therefore incompatible. So, a compatibilizer Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is added to PVA and PEO and the influence of CMC is studied on the compatibility of blends of PVA and PEO. It is found that on adding CMC, PVA and PEO become partially miscible. Here, we describe the preparation of PVA/PEO/CMC blends having weight percentage of CMC 5, 10, 20 wt% and the influence of concentration of CMC on the blends of PVA and PEO is studied and the miscibility of the blends was characterized by using wide-angle X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infra-red (ATR-FTIR) techniques. Also, swelling ratio of the different blends is studied. Keywords: Hydrogels; Polyvinyl alcohol; Polyethylene oxide; Carboxymethyl cellulose; Miscibility, Immiscible. *Correspondence to: Prof. Bhuvanesh Gupta, Department of Textile Technology, Indian Institute of Technology, Hauz Khas, New Delhi-110016, India. E-mail: [emailprotected] INTRODUCTION Designing new materials with improved properties is one of the main goals of the chemists. Two common ways are chemical synthesis and blending which mainly used to get a material with improved or new properties. Chemical synthesis is an unlimited method to get new substances with well-defined properties but it is often time consuming and not seldom costly. On the other side, blending is a well-known and simple method to combine the advantages of different materials [23,65], efficient way to prepare new materials with improved properties.  The blending of hydrophilic/hydrophobic polymers produce phase-separated composite hydrogels. Polymer blends exhibit superior and rare properties, unexpected from homopolymers. The physical, chemical and radiant methods can be applied to prepare polymer blends.  Polymer blends are physical mixtures of structurally different polymers or co-polymers, which interact through secondary forces such as hydrogen bonding, dipole-dipole forces and charg e transfer complexes for homopolymer mixtures with no covalent bonding [34,36-38] that are miscible at molecular level. Polymer blend hydrogels are composed of water-soluble or swellable polymers, such as poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) [25,26] poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)  and, other synthetic water-soluble polymers and degradable or nondegradable water-insoluble or swellable polymers, such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA) , poly(lactic acid-co-glycolic acid) (PGLA).  The most common method used to blend polymers is through solvent-casting techniques. In this process, two or more polymers are dissolved in a mutual solvent and the blends are obtained by evaporating the solvent. The resulting materials have a microphase separated structure [25,26] and often improved miscibility via hydrogen bonding among polymers , resulting in transparent materials. Poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) is a water-soluble polyhydroxy polymer, used in practical applications because of its easy preparation, excellent chemical resistance and physical properties, appropriate mechanical properties [68,71], and it is completely biodegradable and cheap and the -OH groups can be a source of hydrogen bonding (H-bonding) and hence of assistance in the formation of polymer blends. Polyvinyl alcohol has excellent film forming, emulsifying, and adhesive properties. It is also resistant to oil, grease and solvent. It is odorless, nontoxic and has high tensile strength, flexibility, as well as high oxygen and aroma barrier. The chemical structure of PVA favors the formation of intramolecular  hydrogen bonding because of favorable disposition of relatively small -OH groups attached to alternate carbon atoms of PVA , thus it is used in the preparation of various membranes and hydrogels. Hydrogels are hydrophilic polymers having three-dimensional networks , and ar e most often defined as two-component systems where one of the components is a hydrophilic polymer and the second one is water. These have the ability to swell in the presence of water without dissolution because of a three-dimensional network joining as chains. The interactions responsible for water absorption by hydrogels include the processes of hydration, which is connected to the presence of such chemical groups as -OH, -COOH, -CONH2, -CONH-, and -SO3H, and the existence of capillary areas and differences in osmotic pressure.  PVA blends can be cast as films and applied as functional materials including biomedical materials such as dialysis membranes, wound dressing, artificial skin, cardiovascular devices and as vehicles to release active substances in a controlled manner. [69-71] PVA hydrogels have been studied extensively but their properties need to be improved further for special applications. [2,6,7] In order to improve or modify the properties of PVA hydrogels, PEO is used to blend with PVA to form hydrogels which is hydrophilic semicrystalline polyether with a glass transition temperature below room temperature, biocompatible, non toxic, non polar, non antigenic and non immunogenic  and is highly desirable in most biomedical applications requiring contact with physiological fluids. For these reasons, PEO hydrogels are applied as wound coverings, drug delivery systems, hemodialysis membrane , as a component of a tissue sealant [15,16] and as a coating for medical devices , both poly(ethyl ene oxide) (PEO) and poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) are industrially important polymers  and their blends can be of significant practical utility, but it is found that PVA and PEO are immiscible and incompatible blends [1, 75] which do not possess a tendency for extensive mutual solubility.  Also it is found that hydroxyl-containing polymers are self-associated and hence the competition between self association and interpolymer interaction plays an important role in determining the miscibility behavior of their blends. For example, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) is miscible with three tertiary amide polymers poly(N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) (PVP) [54-58], poly(N,N-dimethylacrylamide)  and poly(2-methyl-2-oxazoline) , but is immiscible with another tertiary amide polymer poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline) (PEOx).  PEO is etheric in nature. However formation of weak H-bonds between PEO and PVA cannot be ruled out. The C-O-C bond angle in PEO is normally 108Ã ° and when a -OH group from a neighbouring PVA chain approaches the etheric oxygen atom in order to form a H-bond, the C-O-C bond angle deviates from 108Ã ° so that the lone pair of the etheric oxygen is positioned nearer to the approaching OH from PVA. It would therefore be interesting to investigate the structure and thermal properties of the composites formed in the PEO-PVA system with different proportions of the components. We have found that mutual miscibility of PEO and PVA is likely to exist over only a small range of compositions. The mixtures otherwise seem to form only microscopically immiscible blends which do not possess a tendency for extensive mutual solubility. They are referred to as incompatible polymer blends or simply blends.  To make them compatible, a compatibilizer i.e. Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) is added. Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) obtained from natural cellulose by chemical modification is a water soluble cellulose ether derivate  and is formed by its reaction with sodium hydroxide and chloroacetic acid. It has a number of sodium carboxymethyl groups (CH2COONa), introduced into the cellulose molecule, which promote water solubility. The various properties of CMC depend upon three factors: molecular weight of the polymer, average number of carboxyl content per anhydroglucose unit, and the distribution of carboxyl substituents along the polymer chains. The most important properties of CMC are viscosity building and flocculation. Among all the polysaccharides, CMC is easily available and it is also very cheap. It has high shear stability. The structure of CMC is shown in Figure 1.  Figure 1 Structure of (a) Poly(vinyl alcohol), (b) Poly(ethylene oxide) and (c) Carboxymethyl cellulose CMC has good water solubility, broadly used due to its low cost, biodegradability, biocompatibility  and lack of toxicity. [8,29-33] CMC is an ionic polyelectrolyte  that contains carboxyl groups and exhibits pH sensitivity as it has lot of carboxylic groups. [48-50] It has been used in several medical applications  and more recently as a component of an antiadhesion gel. [11,12] CMC and PVA in different ratios can be mixed homogeneously in an aqueous solution without evident phase separation, and this can be attributed to the interaction between the components.  The hydrogen bonds that form between the carboxylic groups of CMC and hydroxyl groups of PVA, and form semi-interpenetrating polymer networks  while with PEO, CMC undergoes micro phase separation to form a two-phase system.  Berg et. al.  found that the turbidity results of CMC/PEO gels are demonstrated by transparency data. It is found that gels prepared either from CMC alone or from PEO alone were transparent. However, for CMC/PEO composite gels, the transparency of gels changed as the ratio of the two components changed. The gel composed of equal amounts of CMC and PEO had the highest turbidity while the gel having 20% CMC has more than 90% transparency so 20% CMC concentration is taken as the optimized concentration for further studies. The polymer-polymer interaction for the miscibility is thought to be due mainly to hydrogen bonding between three hydroxyl groups in the anhydroglucose unit of CMC and the functional groups of the synthetic polymers PVA and PEO. However, since each of the three hydroxyl groups in the repeating unit of the cellulose is quite different in terms of regiochemistry and polarity, the hydrogen bond formation is not easily clarified. Kondo et.al.  proposed the mechanism for the development of interaction in the cellulose/PEO blend and showed that the hydrogen bonding between the C6 position hydroxyls and skeletal oxygen of PEO is more favourable, at first the two polymers are trapped to form a large adduct, which is a complex between cellulose and PEO, by the hydrogen bond, and the mobility of the molecules is restricted. Then another PEO molecule interacts with the adduct either by hydrogen bonding between the remaining free hydroxyls in cellulose and oxygen in PEO, or by Vander Waals b onding between PEO molecules.  The purpose of the present paper is to investigate the influence of concentration of CMC on the blends of PVA and PEO. In this article, we report the characterization of PVA/PEO/CMC blends by various techniques such as X-Ray diffraction (XRD), infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy, Differential scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and Thermal gravimetric Analysis (TGA). EXPERIMENTAL Materials Poly(vinylalcohol) (PVA) of Loba Chemie Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai, India having degree of polymerization 1700-1800 and molecular weight 1,15,000, Poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO) of Sigma Aldrich of molecular weight 3,00,000 were used. Carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) sodium salt of high viscosity was received from Loba Chemie Pvt. Ltd., Mumbai, India. Distilled water was used for all experiments. Preparation of Blends of PVA and PEO Preparation of the pure film of PVA and blends of PVA and PEO were carried out in the following manner. PVA was dissolved in distilled water under constant mechanical stirring at temperature 60 -70 Ã °C to get 5% PVA solution and then about 15 g. of PVA solution is poured to form layers 2 mm thick in a petridish at room temperature. The solution was first dried in air for 2 days and then in a vacuum oven at 100Ã °C to remove solvent from it. Then, the blends of PVA/PEO/CMC were prepared by dissolving different concentrations of each polymer in distilled water, the total polymer concentration in the solvent remains 5% by weight. Water constitutes a suitable reaction medium, because PVA, PEO and CMC are soluble in water. Each polymer having concentration as shown in Table 1 were added in distilled water one by one and then dissolved under constant mechanical stirring at temperature 60 -70Ã °C. As shown in Figure 2, it was found that blend solutions formed with CMC shows compatibility as compared to the solution having no CMC i.e. solution (a). It is clear from the Figure 2 that compatibility in the blend increases as the CMC concentration increases from 5% to 20%. These blend solutions were then poured in petridishes at room temperature. The solutions were first dried in air for 2 days and then in a vacuum oven at 100Ã °C to remove solvent from it. The films so obtained are then characterized by XRD, TGA, DSC and ATR-FTIR techniques to determine miscibility. Table 1 Samples taken for characterization Figure 2 Solutions prepared from the polymer sample to test compatibility Swelling Ratio (%) All the samples (a), (b), (c) and (d) in film form were accurately weighed and placed in a beaker having fixed volume i.e. 50 ml PBS (pH 7.4) and then kept in a water bath undisturbed for a fixed interval i.e. 24 h. The samples were removed after 24 h., and the excess surface water is removed by pressing gently between filter paper and weighed. The Swelling ratio(%) i.e. SR (%), was calculated as indicated in Equation given below. SR (%) = (Ws Wd) / Wd x 100 where Wd is the weight of dry film, and Ws is the weight of swollen film. Density of blended films Density measurements of the samples (a), (b), (c) and (d) were carried out by taking into account the thickness of membranes of specific size by measuring thickness of the film by thickness tester and by measuring the weight of the sample. Weight in gram per cubic centimeter was represented as the density of the membranes. Wide angle X-Ray diffraction (XRD) X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the samples are recorded in the 2Ã ¸ range of 5-40Ã ° on a Phillips X-ray diffractometer equipped with a scintillation counter. CuKÃ ± radiation (wavelength, 1.54 Ãâ¡Ã º; filament current, 30 mA; voltage, 40 kV) is used for the generation of X-rays. A polymer can be considered partly crystalline and partly amorphous. The crystallinity parts give sharp narrow diffraction peaks and the amorphous component gives a very broad peak. The ratio between these intensities can be used to calculate the amount of crystallinity in the material. Crystallinity (%) = (AC/AT ) X 100 Where AC is the area of crystalline part of the samples and AT is the total area of crystalline and amorphous part of prepared samples. Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) The thermal stability of the prepared samples is evaluated by Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) performed on a Perkin- Elmer TGA, using a nitrogen stream as purge gas, at a heating rate of 10Ã °C/min within the range of 50- 600Ã °C. For this, the prepared samples are firstly vaccum dried at 100Ã ° C and then loaded in the crucible and the thermograms are run under nitrogen atmosphere from 50- 600Ã °C. Attenuated Total Reflectance- Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (ATR- FTIR) Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier-transform infra-red (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy is one of the most powerful techniques to investigate multicomponent systems because it provides information on the blend composition as well as on the polymer-polymer interaction. Infrared spectra of both the blends and the pure components were obtained using the films on an ATR-FTIR spectrometer. It is used to characterize the presence of specific chemical groups in the materials. IR spectroscopy of the thin films of samples are recorded on a Perkin-Elmer spectrophotometer in the wave number range of 650-4000 cmÃ¢Ëâ1 using transmittance mode. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is done to study thermal properties such as melting temperature, glass transition temperature and melting enthalpies of dry samples. The DSC studies on the samples are carried out with a Perkin-Elmer DSC-7 system, in aluminium pans under nitrogen atmosphere. For this vacuum-dried samples were loaded, and the thermograms were run in the following temperature range under nitrogen atmosphere at a heating rate of 10Ã °C/min. The weight of sample used in DSC was in the range of 5-10 mg. The melting temperature was obtained as the peak of the thermogram. The heat of fusion (ÃâHf) is obtained from the area under melting thermograms. The heat of crystallization (ÃâHf(crys)) of 100% crystalline pure PVA is obtained from the literature. The crystallinity of samples is obtained by the following expression: Crystallinity (%) =ÃâHf/ÃâHf(crys) X 100 where ÃâHf is the heat of fusion of the sample obtained from the melting thermogram and ÃâHf(crys) is the heat of fusion of 100% crystalline PVA and is taken as 150 J/g. in high temperature DSC, all samples as shown in table 1 were heated from 50 to 150Ã °C at a heating rate of 10Ã °C/min, kept 5 min at 150Ã °C, cooled to 50Ã °C at the same rate, and kept 5 min at 50Ã °C. Then, the samples were heated from 50 to 350Ã °C at the same rate to record DSC curves. The thermal properties of the polymer blends were determined using two scans. The first heating scan, which was conducted to eliminate the residual water and solvent. The results reported in this work correspond to the second heating scan. In low temperature DSC, all samples as shown in table 1 were heated from 30 to 120Ã °C at a heating rate of 10Ã °C/min, kept 5 min at 150Ã °C, cooled to -50Ã °C at the same rate, and kept 5 min at -50Ã °C. Then, the samples were heated from -50 to 230Ã °C at the same rate to record DSC curves. The thermal properties of the polymer blends were determined using two scans. The first heating scan, which was conducted to eliminate the residual water and solvent. The results reported in this work correspond to the second heating scan. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Swelling Ratio (%) Figure 3 Effect of concentration of CMC on the Swelling Ratio (%) of the blends in PBS (pH 7.4) in 24 h. Figure 3 clearly shows that as the concentration of CMC increases from 0 to 20% in the blends of PVA/PEO/CMC, the Swelling Ratio of blends (%) increases. It is because as the concentration of CMC increases in the blends number of hydroxyl group increases thus increasing the interaction. Density Measurements Table 2 Comparison of influence of concentration of CMC on the density of air dried films Figure 4 Comparison of influence of concentration of CMC on the density of air dried films As shown in Table 2 and Figure 4, it can be clearly concluded that there is not appreciable difference in the density of air dried films with the increase of the concentration of CMC from 0 to 20%. But as the concentration of CMC increases in the blends the density of air dried films slightly increases as the hydrogen bonding between three hydroxyl groups in the anhydroglucose unit of CMC and the functional groups of the synthetic polymers PVA and PEO increases, thus making the blend more dense. Also it can be seen that the density of pure CMC is more as compared to pure PVA and PEO. X-ray diffraction Figure 5 X-Ray diffraction patterns of pure PVA, pure PEO and sample (a) Figure 6 X-Ray diffraction patterns of pure CMC, samples (b), (c) and (d) X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the blends and the pure components are shown in Figure 5 and 6. It may be seen that pure PVA exhibits only a broad and shallow diffraction feature around the 2Ã ¸ value of 16.9Ã °, indicating the presence of low-degree crystalline ordering. PEO has two well-defined reflections at 2Ã ¸ values 18.9Ã ° and 23.2Ã °. These reflections are consistent with literature reports on crystalline PEO. The blend (a) having PVA/PEO 90/10 shows only one reflection at 2Ã ¸ values 19.8Ã °. XRD analysis showed that CMC exhibits a very small crystallinity which can be seen in the Table 3 given below. Table 3 Percentage crystallinity calculated by XRD of samples In samples (a), (b), (c) and (d) as the concentration of CMC increases, the % crystallinity shows not much difference as shown in Figure 7 given below. But as shown in Figure 6 the merging of all the peaks of pure PVA, PEO and CMC shows that on adding CMC to the blend of PVA and PEO, the compatibility increases. Figure 7 Graph of percentage crystallinity vs concentration of CMC by XRD Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) Figure 8 TGA of thin films of samples for studying the effect of concentration of CMC on the thermal stability of the samples The thermal stability of the dry superabsorbent hydrogels was determined from 50Ã °C to 600Ã °C. Figure 8 shows the thermograms for different hydrogel compositions at various temperatures. Generally, in the initial stage of the thermograms from 50Ã °C to 200 Ã ° C, the weight loss was due to the dehydration process of the water contained in the hydrophilic hydrogels. From the figure 8, three degradation steps can be observed in PVA sample. The first weight loss process, is associated with the loss of absorbed moisture and/or with the evaporation of trapped solvent, the second weight loss process correspond to the degradation of PVA by a dehydration reaction on the polymer chain and the third weight loss process is due to the degradation of the polyene residues to yield carbon and hydrocarbons while PEO undergoes one step degradation. In samples a, b, c, d two step degradation process takes place. The hydrogels having concentrations equal to 100% CMC showed a single-step thermogram, whereas the major weight loss of ~ 50% occurred from 250 to 350Ã °C. This weight loss was attributed mainly to the thermal degradation of the two component polymers of the hydrogel, whereas the weight loss up to 600Ã °C was ~ 70%. This means that hydrogels having 100% CMC showed high thermal stability. On the other hand, the thermogram of blends is two-step thermogram. The first step was from 200 to 300Ã °C, which was also attributed to thermal degradation of the side chains. The second step took place from 350 to 450 Ã ° C with a major weight loss equal to 80%. This weight loss was attributed to some thermal degradation of the main chain C-C- bond of the hydrogel components. TGA of CMC showed two distinct zones where the weight is being lost. The initial weight loss is due to the presence of small amount of moisture in the sample. The second loss is due to the loss of CO2 from the polysaccharide. As there are COO- groups in the case of CMC, it is decarboxylated. Attenuated Total Reflectance- Fourier Transform Infra Red Spectroscopy (ATR- FTIR) Figure 9 ATR-FTIR of thin films of samples pure PVA and PEO Figure 10 FTIR of pure CMC powder Figure 11 Comparison of ATR-FTIR of blend (d) with pure samples From Figures 9, 10 and 11, in the IR spectra of the CMC, we can notice the characteristic bands of COO- at 1610, 1419 cm-1, COOH groups at 1055.9 cm-1, -OH at 1419, 1319.54 cm-1 and the ether groups at 1055.9 cm-1. It is worth to remark that in the CMC a part of the carboxylic groups are in acid form and a part in ionic form. The spectrum of CMC shows the stretching vibrations of at -CH-O-CH2 1055.9 cm-1. The band at 1610 cm-1 and 2878.37 cm-1 are assigned to the stretching vibration of the carboxyl group (COO-) and the stretching vibration of methine (C-H), respectively. Pure CMC displays two characteristic absorption bands at 1610 cm-1 and 1419 cm-1, which represents symmetry stretching and asymmetry stretching of COOÃ¢Ëâ group, respectively. It shows a broad band at 3433.59 cm-1, due to the stretching frequency of the -OH group. The band at 2878.37 cm-1 is due to C-H stretching vibration. The presence of a strong absorption band at 1610 cm-1 confirms the presence of COO- group. The bands around 1419 and 1319.54 cm-1 are assigned to -CH2 scissoring and -OH bending vibration, respectively. The FTIR spectrum of pure PVA reference sample is shown in figure 9 and 11. It clearly reveals the major peaks associated with poly(vinyl alcohol). For instance, it can be observed C-H broad alkyl stretching band 2933.33 cm-1 and typical strong hydroxyl bands for intermolecular and intramolecular hydrogen bonded band at 3286.66 cm-1. This vibrational band at 1140 cm-1 is mostly attributed to the crystallinity of the PVA, related to carboxyl stretching band (C-O). The band at 1140 cm-1 has been used as an assessment tool of poly(vinyl alcohol) structure because it is a semicrystalline synthetic polymer able to form some domains depending on several process parameters. The band at 1420 cm-1 is due to -CH2 group and at 1087.11 cm-1 is due to C-O-C group. The IR peak of interest in the C-O-C asymmetric stretch is at 1095.88 cm-1. This peak in the spectrum of blends has been shown to shift due to hydrogen bonding to PVA and CMC. The spectra obtained for blends are shown in Figure 12. Figure 12 ATR-FTIR of thin films of samples (a), (b), (c) and (d) From Figure 12 it can be concluded that all the blends show characteristic peaks of all the polymers present. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) The melting temperatures were determined from maximum in the melting endotherm, the glass transition temperatures were taken as the mid point of the heat capacity change. One of the most commonly used methods to estimate polymer-polymer miscibility is the determination of the Tm of the blend compared with the Tms of the two components separately. In the case where one component is crystalline, observation of a melting point depression of this polymer may also be used as evidence to support the miscibility of the polymer pair. Figure 13 DSC curves showing the melting peaks of PVA, PEO and CMC Thermal properties and crystallinity of the prepared samples are examined by DSC method (Figure 13 and Table 4). PVA exhibited a relatively large and sharp endothermic peak at 222.2Ã °C, PEO at 70.2Ã °C and CMC at 265.9Ã °C. It is observed from Figure 14 that the melting point and melting enthalpies of the samples a, b, c, d are somewhat decreased from the pure PVA sample. This decrease in melting temperature might be related to a decrease in the crystallinity of the sample and proper alignment of the chains due to the interference of other polymers present in the blend. Figure 15 shows the glass transition temperature i.e. Tg of the pure PVA sample. The melting points of the blends show that the interaction between CMC and PVA weakens the interaction between PVA chains and hinders the crystallization of PVA. Figure 14 DSC curves showing the melting peaks of PVA, samples (a), (b), (c) and (d) Figure 15 DSC curves showing the glass transition peak of PVA Figure 16 DSC curves showing the melting temperature peaks of PEO and samples (a), (b), (c) and (d) PEO exhibited a relatively large and sharp endothermic peak at 65.5Ã °C. It is observed from Figure 16 that the melting point and melting enthalpies of the samples a, b, c, d are somewhat decreased from the pure PEO sample and the melting peaks are widened. This decrease in melting temperature is also related to a decrease in the crystallinity of the sample and proper alignment of the chains due to the interference of other polymers present in the blend as shown in Table 4. It was found that the melting temperature of PEO shifts towards a lower temperature when the PVA is added to the PEO, the change in Tm shows the change from semi crystalline to amorphous phase. Table 4 Percentage crystallinity calculated by DSC of samples Figure 17 Graph of Percentage Crystallinity vs Concentration of CMC In Figure 17, the percentage crystallinity data obtained by DSC for different polymer compositions (a), (b), (c) and (d) are plotted against compatibilizer CMC concentration, to clarify the effect of the CMC content on the crystallinity of the present system. This is also clear from the Table 4 given above that as the concentration of CMC increases in the blend the crystallinity % decreases this is due to the decrease in the proper alignment of the chains due to the interference of other polymers present in the blend. Figure 18 Graph of Melting Temperature (Tm) vs Concentration of CMC In Figure 18 and table 4, the Tm data obtained by DSC for different polymer compositions (a), (b), (c) and (d) are plotted against compatibilizer CMC concentration, to clarify the effect of the CMC content on the thermal property of the present system. It is clear from the figure that as the concentration of CMC increases in the blend the melting temperature firstly increases then decreases. CONCLUSIONS We have effectively produced PVA/PEO/CMC hydrogels via aqueous route. These hydrogel blends were properly characterized by using XRD, FTIR spectroscopy, TGA and DSC techniques. FIGURES CAPTIONS Figure 1 Structure of (a) Poly(vinyl alcohol), (b) Poly(ethylene oxide) and (c) Carboxymethyl cellulose Figure 2 Solutions prepared from the polymer sample to test compatibility Figure 3 Effect of concentration of CMC on the Swelling Ratio (%) of the blends in PBS (pH 7.4) in 24 h. Figure 4 Comparison of influence of concentration of CMC on the density of air dried films Figure 5 X-Ray diffraction patterns of pure PVA, pure PEO and sample (a) Figure 6 X-Ray diffraction patterns of pure CMC, samples (b), (c) and (d) Figure 7 Graph of percentage crystallinity vs concentration of CMC by XRD Figure 8 TGA of thin films of samples for studying the effect of concentration of CMC on the thermal stability of the samples Figure 9 ATR-FTIR of thin films of samples pure PVA, PEO and CMC Figure 10 FTIR of pure CMC powder Figure 11 Comparison of ATR-FTIR of blend (d) with pure samples Figure 12 ATR-FTIR of thin films of samples (a), (b), (c) and (d) Figure 13 DSC curves showing the melting peaks of PVA, PEO and CMC Figure 14 DSC curves showing the melting peaks of PVA, samples (a), (b), (c) and (d) Figure 15 DSC curves showing the glass transition peak of PVA Figure 16 DSC curves showing the melting temperature peaks of PEO and samples (a), (b), (c) and (d) Figure 17 Graph of Percentage Crystallinity vs Concentration of CMC Figure 18 Graph of Melting Temperature (Tm) vs Concentration of CMC TABLES CAPTIONS Table 1 Samples taken for characterization Table 2 Comparison of influence of concentration of CMC on the density of air dried films Table 3 Percentage crystallinity calculated by XRD of samples Table 4 Percentage crystallinity calculated by DSC of samples
Tuesday, August 20, 2019
Organisational Chart Of London Heathrow Marriott Boots PLC has a hierarchical structure, in a hierarchical organizational chart; the Chief executive officer is the top rectangle basically the most powerful figure in the organisation/firm. The level underneath the chief officer contains high-level managers or directors, and each succeeding level includes the lower of the line above. Boots PLC also have a centralised structure. The Executive chairman has a span of control of five people the directors. Some of the subordinates of Boots are: Some of the line managers include: Ornella Barra Tony de Nunzio (Director) George Lumb Chris Britton (Director) Alex Gourlay Nick Land (Director) Marco Pagni Dominic Murphy (Director) Steve Duncan Mattia Caprioli (Director) Organisational Chart of London Heathrow Marriott (Source: Interview with the HR Manager 2010) The London Heathrow Marriott has a tall hierarchical pyramid structure; this particular structure helps the business to run smoothly and efficiently. Hierarchical organisational structures are normally used in large and complex businesses. London Heathrow Marriott also operates within a centralised structure which means the firm consists of a head office that will have the most power and retain major responsibilities. The General Manager has a span of control of five people members of the executive committee. It has a layered employment; additionally the chart also consists of a fourth layer of assistant heads of department and a fifth layer for the associates. There are also approximately twenty layers above the General Manager these include (Cluster General Manager for London, Regional Vice President, etc). The line manager of London Heathrow Marriott is Jayne Hillner the general manager and the subordinates include: David Thomas Dawn Packham Elaine Hudson Jim Shields Mike Taylor Comparison of the Organisational Chart of London Heathrow Marriott and Boots PLC Both the businesses have a hierarchical structure which helps London Heathrow Marriott and Boots PLC to be organised and run efficiently. They are also both centralised therefore the businesses can benefit from the decision making through an experienced head office or senior manager. Similarly, both the businesses have a span of control of five people- the directors in Boots PLC and the members of the executive committee in London Heathrow Marriott. The London Heathrow Marriott has approximately 20 layers above the general manager whereas Boots PLC have a complete structure with the CEO at the top. Functional Areas Functional area is a department or area which carries out specific business activity. Effectively, functional areas are used in businesses because it helps the business to be more productive, organised and efficient. In addition, functional areas are vital in businesses as it helps the business achieve its aims and objectives this is because specific departments are in charge or responsible for a particular aim or objective which makes it more easier, for instance: the sales and marketing area deal with aims linked to increase in sales or developing new markets, etc. Mostly businesses are organised in the following departments: Finance, Administration, ICT, Production, Administration, Human Resources, Marketing and Sales. (Source: Carysforth, R Dransfield, M Neild and C Richard: Edexcel GCSE Applied Business, 2009) However, London Heathrow Marriott has the following functional areas: Front Office Food Beverage Allies Restaurant, Tuscany Restaurant, Room Service, Bar Conference and Banqueting, Executive Lounge. Kitchen Leisure Club House Keeping Human Resources Finance Marketing, Sales Events Engineering Maintenance. Administration (General Manager Director of Operations). (Source: Interview with the HR Manager 2010) Front Office The front office department is divided and split into a reception, concierge, nights and At Your Service. Within the reception, London Heathrow Marriott makes sure that the customer has checked in without any difficulties. At the concierge, customers can ask for directions, bookings for taxis and days out, they would greet the customers and take their bags up to the rooms. The Nights is basically the service provided at night. Another way in which London Heathrow Marriott indicates that they are supportive is the At Your Service department, it gives general help and deals with customers enquiries. By doing all of this they are taking care of their customers while they are accommodating, thus they have a pleasant atmosphere. The Front Office helps London Heathrow Marriott to meet their aim of guest satisfaction superiority because they would welcome and greet the customers this will keep them pleased and give them a sense of belonging with the service as a result the guests are more l ikely to visit London Heathrow Marriott again. Eventually, due to the service provided by the front office will allow London Heathrow Marriott to meet their objective of- Sales turnover Ã £20m because the customers would be satisfied by the service provided and as mentioned before they would either visit again or inform about London Heathrow Marriott to their friends or family, this would also increase their profit levels- another aim of London Heathrow Marriott. Without the front office guests wouldnt be served, hence they are more likely to lose their customers to rival hotels; this would decrease the turnover and profits, thus the associates wont be paid on time- high labour turnover and would create an overall negative effect on London Heathrow Marriott. Although, the front office allows London Heathrow Marriott to meet their aim of maximising profit but the most significant aim it meets is the guest satisfaction superiority because achieving this aim will then allow London Hea throw Marriott to achieve their aim of maximising profit as the more customers it has the more profit it will make therefore by keeping the guests satisfied London Heathrow Marriott is likely to gain more customers. (Source: Teachers Notes 2010) Food and Beverage The Food and beverage department develops and manages food and statements to decide how the Food and Beverage department is doing in terms of profits or budgets. London Heathrow Marriott has several restaurants to meet its customers expectation and make them satisfied. The Food and Beverage area helps London Heathrow Marriott to achieve their aim of guest satisfaction superiority as they are meeting the customer specification and satisfying their needs. The restaurants also are a source of income which helps London Heathrow Marriott to meet their objective of Ã £20m in sales. London Heathrow Marriott has a wide range of restaurants where the guests can have their meals such as: Allies American Grille this restaurant provides an American cuisine where they provide buffet, breakfast, lunch and dinner. This restaurant opens at 6 am and closes at about 11 pm Bar Hemia this is a bar where they provide different types of alcohol and snacks. Guests can also spend time watching sports programmes on wide screen TVs. Tuscany Ristorante this is an Italian restaurant, it also has a visible kitchen where the guests can view the chef preparing the food. Costa Coffee it is a coffee shop that serves coffee, tea, etc with a light meal as a side eg: sandwich. Room Service- this is where the guests or customers can choose their meal from a menu and it will then be sent straight to the room. Executive lounge in this area the guests can relax and interact with other people, etc. (Source: Phoned Marriott on 24/01/11) Kitchen In the Kitchen department the chefs prepare the food for events, weddings, conferences, etc. They are also responsible for food stock, in other words they have to buy the exact amount of what they need this would help Marriott to reduce costs. London Heathrow Marriott can minimise costs by bulk buying from the supplier and benefitting from economies of scale. The Kitchen department helps Marriott to meet their aim of maximising profit as the costs are reduced from bulk buying therefore it allows them to increase their profit levels. (Source: Interview with the HR Manager 2010) Leisure Club Housekeeping The Housekeeping department is responsible for public area cleaning, laundry and lost property. In order to keep the customers satisfied maids have been employed to clean the rooms at high standards. They clean about 15-16 rooms a day, London Heathrow Marriott cares about the health and safety of their customers hence cleanliness is one of their main priorities towards guest satisfaction. (Source: Phoned Marriott on 24/01/11). This particular area keeps the customers pleased as they fulfil the needs of their customers before any complaints therefore this helps London Heathrow Marriott to meet their aim of guest satisfaction superiority. London Heathrow Marriott is persistent in keeping their reputation at high standards so that they could meet their aim of maximising profit; the Housekeeping department helps Marriott to do so. Human Resources This functional area works with recruitment and selection, dismissal, payroll, employment laws, health and safety, training and legislation. This is a significant department for London Heathrow Marriott as one of their aims involves training and development, recruitment, pay and benefits and promotions to ensure associate satisfaction. Hence, by providing facilities such as training and recruiting experienced and skilful associates the London Heathrow Marriott is likely to meet this aim. The process of recruitment costs Marriott Ã £4000 so if they recruit the right associates suitable for the job they are likely to meet their objective of low labour turnover and also make more profits by cutting down the recruitment costs. Also, the HR department is responsible for IT and payroll. The IT functional area focuses on managing the businesses IT systems, setting up accounts for employees, updating software and hardware programmes, manage and updating the website and also backing up files . Moreover, the London Heathrow Marriott does not have an ICT section; the human resources department controls the majority of the ICT aspects. Also, the main office in U.S manages any problems and is also responsible to update the London Heathrow Marriott website. Additionally, the Marriott International had researched and found that having specialised employees working in America has a far more effective result in keeping information safe and dealing with technical issues. This reduces the London Heathrow Marriott costs and allows them in meeting their aim of maximising profit because they do not have to employ and pay IT specialist. The use of ICT such as internet in the hotel would keep the guest pleased because London Heathrow Marriotts target audience are businessmen or women hence many of them would require internet, therefore this would keep the guest satisfied which is an aim of London Heathrow Marriott. The guest satisfaction survey can also be filled online and analysed b y computers, this is cost effective and also environmentally friendly as not much paper is used. This helps the business to reduce paper cost and increases profits. All the data is sent to a centralised ICT department in U.S where the headquarters are based. However, this may take a lot of time but the costs are lowered through the use of less equipment, this also helps the business to meet its aim of maximising profit because the spending costs are reduced. (Source: Interview with the HR Manager 2010) Finance The finance department deals with the cash inflows (revenue made from sales) and outflows (paying for equipments, materials and wages). It is also about budgeting, forecasting sales and costs, monitoring productivity and banking (Source: Student presentations 2010). The London Heathrow Marriott sets budgets and aims to lower the costs. This department makes it easy for London Heathrow Marriott to meet their aim of maximizing profits, as the set budgets plan to lower the costs. The sector controls cash flow and ensures theres enough within the business to pay the associates and suppliers on time. Furthermore, Finance has a vital role when customers make a booking for a function or event at the Marriott. Quotes need to be accurate and delivered fast so that customers can make swift decisions about their requirements from the Marriott. Suppliers need to be informed and the finance department need to present the information to its customers. One of the aims of London Heathrow Marriott is : Marriott Profitability and Owner Return on Investment- To meet this aim the Finance department must make sure they are constantly checking their budget and keeping tabs on the expenditure. Marketing and Sales The marketing and sales department deals with the consumer needs (Carysforth, R Dransfield, M Neild and C Richard: Edexcel GCSE Applied Business, 2009). The Marketing and Sales department are also responsible for advertising and promotions, ecommerce, responding to sales enquiry and keeping customer records, research about customer needs through market research and surveys. It is important to find out what the needs of the customers are before launching a new product or service. The marketing and sales department also responds to sale enquiries and keep customer records. In the London Heathrow Marriott the marketing and sales department present powerful advertising and competitive pricing. Furthermore, they also do spy checks where an associate visits one of the competitors of London Heathrow Marriott to find out more data and also monitors Trip Advisor. London Heathrow Marriott has a strong link with many airlines, especially Emirates. Many Emirates employees stay at London Heathrow Marriott. Additionally, 95% of the airline employees stay at London Heathrow Marriott therefore if any cancellations or delays occur the London Heathrow Marriott is their first priority; Emirates take an equivalent of 120 rooms a day. (Source: Teachers Notes 2010). This allows London Heathrow Marriott to gain more customers and meet their objective of guest satisfaction and maximizing profits as they are likely to get more customers hence making a greater profit. Lastly, the department deals with loyalty programmes such as enhanced facilities, long stay discounts, warm welcomes and spirit to serve. The offers might affect short term benefits but there are also long term benefits such as the offers will allow more customers to stay at London Heathrow Marriott through the loyalty programmes, discount scheme, etc. The more customers London Heathrow Marriott gets the more profit they will earn which means they will achieve their aim of making a profit. London Heathrow Marriott also aim s to be profitable and in order to do this they must meet their sales target objective of Ã £20m- which the sales department is responsible for. Engineering/Maintenance Administration Production/operations Though the London Heathrow Marriott does not sell a product, the product does offer a service thus it has an operations department. This consists of kitchen and health club staff, cleaners and maids. They also ensure that the service is provided- this includes greeting customers, showing them their room. In addition, the department helps to meet their aim of satisfying guests; if the operations department satisfies the customers then they are likely to revisit London Heathrow Marriott hence this department helps to meet their aim of increasing profits. Marriotts Spirit to Serve- operations department deal with customers as they do not have a customer service department. The Spirit to Serve the customers is evident in the adage, the customer is always right. (Source: Interview with the HR Manager 2010) Customer Service Generally, businesses include a customer service department but the London Heathrow Marriott does not consist of a customer service department. They make sure that the hotel is presentable and that services such as the mini bar, towels in rooms, etc are replaced before customers can complain about anything. However, the customer service department does not exist, London Heathrow Marriott keep their customers satisfied throughout by serving the customers with all their needs beforehand. Instead the Front Office deals with any customer enquiries, etc it acts more like the customer service department. (Source: Teachers Notes 2011)
Monday, August 19, 2019
The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was initially recognized in the first half of the twentieth century and has since become a major worldwide epidemic (Ã¢â¬Å"Discovery HealthÃ¢â¬ ). Debate about the origin of AIDS has enticed considerable concern and controversy since the advent of the epidemic. It is has been proven that AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) by stimulating the destruction and functional impairment of cells in the immune system, potentially destroying the human bodyÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to fight infection (Ã¢â¬Å"CDCÃ¢â¬ ). While there is no cure for the AIDS epidemic, a combination of historical studies and expanding medical technology enable it to be controlled in the course of the future. Knowing where the disease came from and the development of HIV is essential in creating a vaccine and more efficient treatment against the virus. Evidence that the AIDS disease is caused by the HIV virus include numerous international studies indicating that virtually all patients diagnosed with AIDS are HIV seropositive; they carry antibodies that depict HIV - infection. Also, modern techniques have allowed the isolation of HIV in all AIDS patients, as well as in nearly all HIV seropositive individuals with both early and late stage disease. Furthermore, a 1999 case reported to the Center of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) accounted three laboratory employees as infected with AIDS after accidental exposure of concentrated replicas of HIV in the laboratory; in all three instances, HIV was insulated and attest to be the infecting cause of disease (Ã¢â¬Å"CDCÃ¢â¬ ). Such examples, demonstrating HIV as the cause of AIDS, satisfy nineteenth century physicianÃ¢â¬â¢s, Robert KochÃ¢â¬â¢s, accredited postulates of disease stating that: Ã¢â¬Å"one, the suspected cause [HIV] must be strongly associated with the disease [AIDS] ; two, the suspected agent can be isolated and propagated outside the host, and three, the transfer of the agent to an uninfected host, man, or animal, produces the disease in that hostÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"KochÃ¢â¬â¢s PostulateÃ¢â¬ ). Thus, to find the genesis of AIDS, scientists must find the source of the HIV virus. HIV is subdivision of a group of viruses classified as lentiviruses. Lentiviruses excluding HIV have been discovered in a broad range of nonhuman primates, scientifically referred to as simian immunodeficiency viruses (SIV); it has been universally accepted that HIV is a descendant of SIV since certain simian immunodeficiency viruses share a mutual resemblance to HIV - 1 and HIV - 2, the two types of HIV.
Sunday, August 18, 2019
Nutrition and Food Intake Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Since we have been learning about nutrition in class, our task was to record a food log. Nutrition requires a well-balanced diet containing nutrient and vitamins like amino acids and fatty acids. Over the past seven days I have been recording and have been looking very carefully at my intake of nutrients, minerals, vitamins, and fats. In our task, the objective was to record the basic foods we ate during the period of seven, but it did not require recording every single detail or our intake of food. Doing this food log was a pain and it was disturbing because I never wrote about what I ate like breakfast, lunch, dinner, or additional meals. I found this food log useful because it helped me learn what I can change in my intake of foods to make my diet healthy and to see what about my diet is affecting me from being healthy because I could affect me in the future. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The purpose of recording this food log was to see what in my diet healthy or unhealthy. The purpose of this food log was also to view our eating habits because the basic average man eats many saturated fats, sugars, and red meat and this usually explains why some of them are usually obese and have diabetes. Diabetes is a problem when you eat too many foods with sugar or you eat too many sweets. In our task we were supposed to compare our eating habits to the new food pyramid. The new food pyramid describes what is healthy and the average amount of servings that should be taken daily. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The food pyramids are basically an outline of what you should eat during the day that is healthy. Knowing what you eat is important because nutrition requires a well-balanced diet containing nutrients and vitamins and if you don?t eat healthy then you can acquire diseases and dietary disorders. The new food pyramid tells you that you should include whole grains and plant oils in most meals because if you include plant oils and whole grains in most meals it reduces the rate of heart diseases & whole grains contain Vitamin B and Vitamin B is essential for growth, the functioning of the stomach and intestines, and they are also essential for the nervous system. Vegetables should be eaten abundantly because vegetables contain the mineral magnesium which relaxes your nerves and muscles, builds and strengthens bones, and keeps you blood circulating at a constant pace. You s... ... school lunch & the lunch comes with milk. Milk is good because it consist of calcium which helps for the functioning of the heart, muscles, and nerves. I have noticed that I don?t eat vegetables a lot but I know I need to. I can improve my intake of foods by beginning to eat vegetables because if I don?t the body will take the magnesium that vegetables contain out of my bones for the bloodstream which gives me weakened bones. If I don?t get enough magnesium then my tissues will be affected in my heart and kidneys. Some symptoms are that you get tremors or spasms, when your heart rate increases, when you muscle softens and weakens, or when you have headaches. You usually get these if you drink too much alcohol, have diabetes, have kidney disease, or use drugs. In the end I was able to realize the mistakes I am making in my eating habits and diet because it could be affecting my health and this is not good for a well-balanced diet. In the end, I was able to see what how I can impr ove in my health because increasing my intake of specific foods. Basically, since I exercised a lot I was not sure of how many calories I was consuming or how many calories I was burning due to exercise.
Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã PFC Robert Charles Burke on 7 November 1949 in Monticello, Illinois and enlisted in the Marine Corps from Chicago, Illinois. The Marine died on 17 May 1968 in the Southern Quang Nam Province, Republic of Vietnam (South). He received the Congressional Medal of Honor posthumously for conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. PFC Burke was serving as a machine gunner with Company I, 3d Battalion, 27th Marines (3/27), 1st Marine Division (REIN), FMF. Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã The citation, which was signed by then President Richard M. Nixon, reads as follows: Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã¢â¬Å"For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty for service as a machine gunner with Company I on Operation ALLEN BROOK. Company I was approaching a dry river bed with a heavily wooded tree line that borders the hamlet of Lee Nam, when they suddenly came under intense mortar, rocket propelled grenades, automatic weapon and small arms fire from a large, well concealed enemy force which halted the companyÃ¢â¬â¢s advance and wounded several marines. Realizing that key points of resistance had to be eliminated to allow the units to advance and casualties to be evacuated. Pfc. Burke, without hesitation, seized his machine gun and launched a series of 1-man assaults against the fortified emplacements. As he aggressively maneuvered to the edge of the steep river bank, he delivered accurate suppressive fire upon several enemy bunkers, which enabled his comrades to advance and move the wounded marines to position s of relative safety. As he continued his combative actions, he located an opposing automatic weapons emplacement and poured intense fire into the position, killing 3 North Vietnamese soldiers as they attempted to flee. Pfc. Burke then fearlessly moved from one position to another, quelling the hostile fire until his weapon malfunctioned. Obtaining a casualtyÃ¢â¬â¢s rifle and hand grenades, he advanced further into the midst of the enemy fire in an assault against another pocket of resistance killing 2 more of the enemy. Observing that a fellow marine had cleared his malfunctioning machine gun he grasped his weapon and moved into a dangerously exposed area and saturated the hostile tree line until he fell mortally wounded.
Saturday, August 17, 2019
Ã¢â¬Å"Although abuse of the system are inevitable, social welfare payments are essential to protect the rights citizens have to a guaranteed minimum income in a democratic societyÃ¢â¬ Discuss. Social welfare is an essential element of an advanced society. Good systems are always abused, but that does not mean they are faulty. In my opinion, the two main reasons why welfare payments are necessary are as follows: First of all, critics forget that there are many forms of welfare besides payments to the unemployed. Their negative opinions harm those who are not capable of earning a wage, such as single-parent mothers, the disabled, and the sick. Moreover, the unemployed have the right to an income, too. They are not always at fault for not having a job, and in most cases the tax they have paid in the past entitles them to assistance. The second reason is that crime increases when people have no means of support. The desperately poor inevitably turn to crime, which is not only dangerous but costly. Policing the streets is more expensive than providing welfare. A policemanÃ¢â¬â¢s wage is four or five times higher than a Ã¢â¬Å"doleÃ¢â¬ payment. Certain members of society believe that people should look after themselves. They point out that welfare increases dependency on others and destroys dignity. This may be true, but in the case of the unemployed, the relief payments are usually temporary. It is surely the fault of the government if there are long-term unemployed. Welfare critics also believe that it is the responsibility of a victimÃ¢â¬â¢s family to provide financial assistance. However, it is too expensive to provide complete help for a severely disabled person. To conclude, it is vital to understand the need for welfare in a modern democratic society. Without welfare payments the poor are destined to become poorer. The first duty of a government is to provide a financial safety net for all disadvantaged persons, and that includes those without work.